Agent Name

gamma-Nonalactone

Alternative Name

Dihydro-5-pentyl-2(3H)-furanone

CAS Number

104-61-0

Formula

C9-H16-O2

Major Category

Other Classes

Synonyms

Dihydro-5-pentyl-2(3H)-furanone; 1,4-Nonalolide; 1,4-Nonyl lactone; 2(3H)-Furanone, dihydro-5-pentyl-; 4-Amyl-4-hydroxybutyric acid lactone; 4-Hydroxynonanoic acid, gamma-lactone; 4-Nonalactone; 4-Nonanolide; 4-Pentyl-butanolide; Aldehyde C-18; Coconut aldehyde; Nonan-1,4-olide; Nonanoic acid, 4-hydroxy-, gamma-lactone; Prunolide; gamma-Amyl-gamma-butyrolactone; gamma-n-Amylbutyrolactone; gamma-Nonanolactone; gamma-Nonanolide; gamma-Nonylactone; gamma-Nonyllactone; gamma-Pelargolactone; gamma-Pentyl-gamma-butyrolactone; [ChemIDplus]

Category

Lactones

Description

Colorless to pale straw-yellow liquid with an odor of coconut; [HSDB]

Sources/Uses

Reportedly found in peaches, apricots, roasted barley, rum, and tomatoes; Used as flavoring and fragrance ingredient; [HSDB] Used in the US as insecticide, insect and mammal repellent, and mosquito larvicide; [Reference #1]

Comments

A mutagen and severe skin irritant; Causes somnolence and abnormal liver and kidney function tests in high-dose animal studies; [RTECS] Safe to use as a flavoring agent in food; ADI = 0-1.25 mg/kg/ bw; [JECFA] Absorbed quickly by oral dosing in rats, and excreted mainly in urine (~64%) and to lesser extent feces (~32%); Low toxicity in gavage studies with cats and rats; Not irritating to skin of rabbits or humans; Not sensitizing to skin of guinea pigs or humans; An eye irritant in rats; Increased liver weights (no accompanying histopathological changes) observed in 90 day gavage study with rats; No significant adverse effects in two generation study with rats; [European Commission] Caused no skin irritation or sensitization in 25 human volunteers (10% in petrolatum); No significant adverse effects observed in feeding studies with rats (studies ranging from two weeks to two years); [HSDB] Low acute oral, dermal, and inhalation toxicity; Not irritating to skin or eyes and not sensitizing to skin; [Reference #1] See "Butyrolactone."

Reference Link

EPA Pesticide Chemical Search

Adverse Effects
Neurotoxin

CNS Solvent Syndrome

Hepatotoxin

Hepatotoxin, Secondary

Links to Other NLM Databases
Health Studies

Human Health Effects from Hazardous Substances Data Bank:

Toxicity Information

Search TOXNET

Chemical Information

Search ChemIDplus

Related Information in HazMap
Diseases

Occupational diseases associated with exposure to this agent: