Agent Name

Furfural

CAS Number

98-01-1

Formula

C5-H4-O2

Major Category

Other Classes

Synonyms

2-Formylfuran; 2-Formylofuran [Polish]; 2-Furaldehyde; 2-Furanaldehyde; 2-Furancarbonal; 2-Furancarboxaldehyde; 2-Furankarbaldehyd [Czech]; 2-Furfural; 2-Furfuraldehyde; 2-Furil-metanale [Italian]; 2-Furyl-methanal; 2-Furylaldehyde; 2-Furylcarboxaldehyde; Ant Oil, artificial; Artificial ant oil; Artificial oil of ants; Bran oil; Fural; Furaldehyde; Furale; Furancarbonal; Furfural; Furfural (natural); Furfuraldehyde; Furfurale [Italian]; Furfurol; Furfurole; Furfurylaldehyde; Furol; Furole; Furyl-methanal; Pyromucic aldehyde; Quakeral; [ChemIDplus] UN1199

Category

Aldehydes

Description

Colorless to amber liquid with an almond-like odor. [Note: Darkens in light and air.]; [NIOSH]

Sources/Uses

Used in solvent extraction in petroleum refining; used as a solvent for rubber cements, resins, and dyes; also used as a flavoring agent and chemical intermediate; [HSDB] Used to make furan-based chemicals; Decomposes into furan above 250 deg C; Polymerizes into furan-based resins in the presence of strong acid; One of the aldehydes in smoke, e.g., soldering, and present in many foods; "Generally recognized as safe" as a food flavor; Was used in high concentrations as a herbicide and fungicide; [ACGIH]

Comments

Liquid causes first degree burns on short exposure. [CHRIS] At concentrations of 1.9 to 14 ppm, vapor can cause weeping of the eyes. [HSDB] TLV Basis is upper respiratory tract irritation and eye irritation; Hepatotoxicity reported in rats exposed to higher oral doses (30-60 mg/kg); [ACGIH] An irritant that defats the skin and may injure the liver; [ICSC] Vapor is eye and respiratory tract irritant; [CAMEO] Furfuraldehydes (UN1199) has warning of explosive polymerization; [ERG 2016]

Restricted

No longer contained in any registered pesticide products in the United States; [HSDB]

Reference Link

EPA Pesticide Chemical Search

Exposure Assessment
BEI

Furoic acid in urine = 200 mg/L at end of shift; "The determinant is nonspecific, since it is also observed after exposure to other chemicals." [TLVs and BEIs]]

Skin Designation (ACGIH)

Yes

TLV (ACGIH)

0.2 ppm

PEL (OSHA)

5 ppm

IDLH (NIOSH)

100 ppm

Excerpts from Documentation for IDLHs

Human data: Widespread eye and respiratory tract irritation has been noted in workers exposed to concentrations ranging from 5 to 16 ppm [Apol and Lucas 1975]. Headaches, itching of the throat, and red and weeping eyes have occurred at concentrations ranging from 1.9 to 14 ppm [Korenman and Resnik 1930].

Vapor Pressure

2 mm Hg

Odor Threshold Low

0.07 ppm

Lethal Concentration

LC50 (rat) = 175 ppm/6H

Explosive Polymerization

Yes

Explanatory Notes

Flash point = 60 deg C, closed cup; [ACGIH] UN1199 is "Furfuraldehydes." [ERG 2016]

Reference Link

ICSC: Furfural

Adverse Effects
Lacrimator

Yes

Hepatotoxin

Hepatotoxin, Secondary

Dermatotoxin

Skin Burns

IARC Carcinogen

Not Classifiable

ACGIH Carcinogen

Confirmed Animal

Links to Other NLM Databases
Health Studies

Human Health Effects from Hazardous Substances Data Bank:

Toxicity Information

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Chemical Information

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Biomedical References

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Related Information in HazMap
Diseases

Occupational diseases associated with exposure to this agent:

Processes

Industrial Processes with risk of exposure: