Agent Name

Iodine

CAS Number

7553-56-2

Formula

I2

Major Category

Other Classes

Synonyms

Actomar; Diiodine; Eranol; Ethanolic solution of iodine; IODE [French]; Iodine; Iodine ((127)I2); Iodine Tincture USP; Iodine colloidal; Iodine crystals; Iodine solution; Iodine sublimed; Iodine tincture; Iodine-127; Iodio [Italian]; Iosan superdip; Jod [German, Polish]; Jood [Dutch]; Molecular iodine; Tincture iodine; Vistarin; [ChemIDplus] UN3495

Category

Elements, Nonmetallic

Description

Violet solid with a sharp, characteristic odor; [NIOSH] Iodide salts are white powders; [ACGIH]

Sources/Uses

Used as an antiseptic to kill bacteria, spores, viruses, and protozoa; Prepared as tinctures of 50% ethanol; Products that release iodine include iodoform, iodochlorhydroxyquin, povidone-iodine, and sodium and potassium iodides; Lugol's solution containing 5% iodine and 10% potassium iodide is used to treat hyperthyroidism and to prevent radioactive iodine absorption by the thyroid gland; Amiodarone is a cardiac drug that releases iodine and may cause thyrotoxicosis. Iodine is used in the production of dyes and photographic chemicals. [Olson, p. 243] Iodides are used in animal supplements, catalysts, inks, radiopaque dyes, drugs, disinfectants, and photography; Also used to make batteries, high-purity metals, engine fuels, iodized salt, and lubricants; [ACGIH]

Comments

Iodine vapor is an irritant that may cause pneumonitis and pulmonary edema. Strong iodine tincture containing 7% iodine and 5% potassium iodide in 83% ethanol is corrosive to tissue. USP iodine tincture, povidone-iodine, and iodoforms are generally not corrosive. Ingestion of iodine can cause hemorrhagic gastroenteritis. The mean lethal dose is about 2-4 grams of free iodine. [Olson, p. 243] Iodine vapor at 0.1 ppm caused no symptoms of irritation, while 0.3 ppm made work impossible. Excess intake of iodine can cause hypothyroidism. The upper limit is 1.1 mg/day, and 150 ug/day is recommended. [ACGIH] Iodide salts are not caustic like iodine. After ingestion, hypersenitivity reactions, e.g., angioedema and urticaria, may occur; Chronic ingestion of iodide salts may cause various skin diseases, goiter, hypothyroidism, and congenital thyroid effects; [HSDB] Causes lachrymation; [ICSC]

Reference Link

EPA Pesticide Chemical Search

Exposure Assessment
Skin Designation (ACGIH)

No

TLV (ACGIH)

0.01 ppm, inhalable fraction and vapor

STEL (ACGIH)

0.1 ppm, vapor and aerosol

PEL (OSHA)

Ceiling(OSHA) = 0.1 ppm

IDLH (NIOSH)

2 ppm

Excerpts from Documentation for IDLHs

Human data: It has been reported that work was difficult but possible at 0.15 to 0.2 ppm and that work was impossible at 0.3 ppm [Flury and Zernik 1931]. Exposures to 1 ppm have been reported to be highly irritating [Casarett 1975]. Eye irritation was experienced at 1.63 ppm after 2 minutes [ACGIH 1980].

Vapor Pressure

0.3 mm Hg

Lethal Concentration

LCLo (rat) = 137 ppm/1H

Explanatory Notes

TLV is for "Iodine and iodides; [ACGIH]

Adverse Effects
Lacrimator

Yes

Toxic Pneumonitis

Yes

Dermatotoxin

Skin Burns

ACGIH Carcinogen

Not Classifiable

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