Agent Name

Heliotridine

CAS Number

520-63-8

Formula

C8-H13-N-O2

Major Category

Biological Agents

Synonyms

1H-Pyrrolizine-7-methanol, 2,3,5,7a-tetrahydro-1-hydroxy-, (1S-cis)-; [ChemIDplus]

Category

Plant Toxins

Sources/Uses

An amino alcohol found in many pyrrolizidine alkaloids in several families of plants; [HSDB]

Comments

Intraperitoneal LD50 (rat) = 1500 mg/kg; [RTECS] An outbreak thousands of cases of liver disease was reported in Afghanistan after the seeds of the plant (Heliotropium popovii H. Riedl subsp. gillianum H. Riedl) contaminated the wheat crop; Emergency treatment: "Plants- pyrrolizidine alkaloids"; [HSDB] Over 6000 plants produce pyyrolizidine alkaloids, some of which are toxic. This is probably the most common plant toxin, and it affects livestock, wildlife, and humans. [Haddad, p. 494] Mechanism of toxicity is the metabolic conversion into pyrroles that act as alkylating agents. Hepatic disease leads to cirrhosis and possibly increased risk for hepatic carcinoma. Most poisoning cases have resulted from contamination of food grain with the seeds containing the alkaloid or from medicinal herbs. An estimated 20% of patients die, 50% recover completely, and 30% develop chronic hepatic veno-occlusive disease. [Goldfrank, p. 647, 1546]

Exposure Assessment
Vapor Pressure

1.5E-5 mm Hg

Adverse Effects
Hepatotoxin

Hepatotoxin, Secondary

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