Agent Name

Hydrazine

CAS Number

302-01-2

Formula

H4-N2

Major Category

Nitrogen Compounds

Synonyms

Diamine; Hydrazine (anhydrous); Hydrazine base; [NIOSH] Diamide; Nitrogen hydride (anhydrous); [ICSC] UN2029 (anhydrous); UN2030 (aqueous solution > 37% hydrazine); UN3293 (aqueous solution < 37% hydrazine); [HMT]

Category

Hydrazines

Description

Colorless, fuming, oily liquid with an ammonia-like odor; [NIOSH]

Sources/Uses

Used as a rocket fuel, reducing agent, and additive to boiler water; [ACGIH] Hydrazine sulfate is used as a flux for soldering; [Marks, p. 318] Skin sensitization to hydrazine has also been reported in an explosives factory. [Kanerva, p. 1568] Hydrazine sulfate is used in photographic developers. [Kanerva, p. 1637] Hydazine is used as a reducing agent in a nickel plating method that does not use electrodes. It is also used to treat water and to plate metal on glass, plastics, and fuel cells. Hydrazine sulfate is used in rare metal refining and as a biocide for fungi and mold. [NTP]

Comments

Liquid causes second or third degree burns after short contact; [CHRIS] Corrosive to skin; [Quick CPC] A case of pulmonary edema following an inhalation exposure has been reported. [ACGIH] Patients poisoned by hydrazines may develop symptoms of CNS injury, methemoglobinemia, and liver damage. [HSDB] Allergic contact dermatitis from hydrazine in flux for soldering has been reported in electronic workers. [Marks, p. 318] [Hydrazine contact dermatitis from gold plating. Wrangsjo K, et al. Contact Dermatitis. 1986 Oct;15(4):244-5.] Allergic contact dermatitis reported in workers using solder containing hydrazine sulfate, hydrazine hydrobromide, or hydrazine hydrochloride; [Kanerva, p. 1801] In high-dose reproductive studies of animals, hydrazine derivatives (hydrazine, MMH, and UDMH) cause testicular damage and fetal loss, and hydrazine causes birth defects. [Frazier, p. 341-2] Hydrazine and hydazine sulfate are "reasonably anticipated to be human carcinogens." [NTP] Hydrazines antagonize GABA in the CNS causing excitation and seizures. Pyrodoxine, vitamin B6, is a specific antidote for this effect. [AHLS, p. 426] See "Carcinogenicity of some industrial chemicals," Volume 115. [IARC, News Release, 23 February 2016]

Reference Link

ATSDR - ToxFAQs - Hydrazines

Exposure Assessment
Skin Designation (ACGIH)

Yes

TLV (ACGIH)

0.01 ppm

PEL (OSHA)

1 ppm

IDLH (NIOSH)

50 ppm

Excerpts from Documentation for IDLHs

Basis for original (SCP) IDLH: The chosen IDLH is based on the statement by Patty [1963] that a 4hour exposure to 80 to 300 ppm killed 14 of 30 rats [Comstock et al. 1954]. . . . Human data: None relevant for use in determining the revised IDLH;

Vapor Pressure

14.4 mm Hg

Odor Threshold Low

3 ppm

Odor Threshold High

4 ppm

Lethal Concentration

LC50 (rat) = 570 ppm/4H

Explanatory Notes

Detection odor threshold from AIHA (mean = 3.7 ppm); Short-term Public Emergency Exposure Guidance Levels (SPEGLs): 1hour SPEGL: 0.12 ppm; The Guide from the Emergency Response Guidebook is for "hydrazine, anhydrous." Flash point = 100 deg F;

Reference Link

ICSC: Hydrazine

Adverse Effects
Skin Sensitizer

Yes

Toxic Pneumonitis

Yes

Neurotoxin

Other CNS Neurotoxin

Hepatotoxin

Hepatotoxin, Secondary

Reproductive Toxin

Yes

Methemoglobinemia

Methemoglobinemia, Secondary

Dermatotoxin

Skin Burns

IARC Carcinogen

Possible Carcinogen

NTP Carcinogen

Anticipated Human Carcinogen

ACGIH Carcinogen

Confirmed Animal

Links to Other NLM Databases
Health Studies

Human Health Effects from Hazardous Substances Data Bank:

Toxicity Information

Search TOXNET

Chemical Information

Search ChemIDplus

Biomedical References

Search PubMed

Related Information in HazMap
Diseases

Occupational diseases associated with exposure to this agent:

Processes

Industrial Processes with risk of exposure:

Activities

Activities with risk of exposure: