Agent Name

Nitrobenzene

CAS Number

98-95-3

Formula

C6-H5-N-O2

Major Category

Nitrogen Compounds

Synonyms

Essence of mirbane; Mirbane oil; Nitrobenzeen [Dutch]; Nitrobenzen [Polish]; Nitrobenzene; Nitrobenzol; Oil of mirbane; Oil of myrbane; p-Nitrobenzene; [ChemIDplus] UN1662

Category

Nitros, Aromatic

Description

Yellow, oily liquid with a pungent odor like paste shoe polish. [Note: A solid below 42 degrees F.]; [NIOSH]

Sources/Uses

Used in the organic synthesis of aniline, benzidine, acetaminophen, and cellulose ethers and acetates; Also used in shoe and metal polishes and as a solvent; [ACGIH]

Comments

Liquid causes first degree burns on short exposure; [CHRIS] Most cases of nitrobenzene-induced methemoglobinemia are probably mild. Severe methemoglobinemia and liver damage have been reported after occupational exposure. Anemia is the most common finding seen after chronic poisoning. Methemoglobinemia has been produced by inhalation of nitrobenzene at 5 ppm in animals and 6 ppm in humans. There is no evidence that dermal exposure in the industrial environment could induce significant methemoglobinemia. [ACGIH] In high-dose reproductive studies of animals, nitrobenzene causes testicular damage. [Frazier, p. 347] Inhalation of high concentrations can cause CNS depression; [ICSC]

Reference Link

ATSDR - ToxFAQs - Nitrobenzene

Exposure Assessment
BEI

Methemoglobin in blood = 1.5% of hemoglobin during or end of shift;

Skin Designation (ACGIH)

Yes

TLV (ACGIH)

1 ppm

PEL (OSHA)

1 ppm

MAK

0.1 ppm

IDLH (NIOSH)

200 ppm

Excerpts from Documentation for IDLHs

Human data: It has been reported that 200 ppm is the maximum concentration that can be inhaled for 1 hour without serious disturbance [Henderson and Haggard 1943].

Vapor Pressure

0.24 mm Hg

Odor Threshold Low

0.07 ppm

Odor Threshold High

1.9 ppm

Lethal Concentration

LC50 (rat) = 556 ppm/4 hr

Explanatory Notes

Detection odor threshold from AIHA (mean = 0.37 ppm); Flash point = 88 deg C;

Half Life

Whole body: 2 days; [TDR, p. 942]

Reference Link

ICSC: Nitrobenzene

Adverse Effects
Hepatotoxin

Hepatotoxin, Secondary

Reproductive Toxin

Yes

Methemoglobinemia

Methemoglobinemia, Primary

Dermatotoxin

Skin Burns

IARC Carcinogen

Possible Carcinogen

NTP Carcinogen

Anticipated Human Carcinogen

ACGIH Carcinogen

Confirmed Animal

Links to Other NLM Databases
Health Studies

Human Health Effects from Hazardous Substances Data Bank:

Toxicity Information

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Chemical Information

Search ChemIDplus

Biomedical References

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Related Information in HazMap
Diseases

Occupational diseases associated with exposure to this agent:

Processes

Industrial Processes with risk of exposure: