Agent Name

Nitroethane

CAS Number

79-24-3

Formula

C2-H5-N-O2

Major Category

Nitrogen Compounds

Synonyms

Nitroetan; [NIOSH] NE; [CHEMINFO] UN2842

Category

Nitros, Aliphatic

Description

Colorless, oily liquid with a mild, fruity odor; [NIOSH]

Sources/Uses

Used as a propellant, a solvent for resins and waxes, and an intermediate for organic chemicals; [ACGIH]

Comments

Experimental animals tolerate hours or days of exposures at 500 ppm, but many die at concentrations of 1000 ppm. Pathological examination shows liver damage after lethal exposures. "Methemoglobinemia was no greater in animals that inhaled nitroethane than in those exposed only to room air." [ACGIH] "Tear drawing." An eye and respiratory tract irritant; Inhalation of high concentrations can cause CNS depression; [ICSC]

Exposure Assessment
Skin Designation (ACGIH)

Insufficient data

TLV (ACGIH)

100 ppm

PEL (OSHA)

100 ppm

MAK

10 ppm

IDLH (NIOSH)

1000 ppm

Excerpts from Documentation for IDLHs

Other animal data: Guinea pigs survived both a 2hour and a 3hour exposure to 5,000 ppm [Machle et al. 1940]. Rats exposed to 2,200 ppm for 6 hours had no noticeable difficulty [IMCC 1979]. Human data: None relevant for use in determining the revised IDLH;

Vapor Pressure

20.8 mm Hg

Odor Threshold Low

2.1 ppm

Odor Threshold High

200 ppm

Lethal Concentration

LCLo (rat) = 13,000 ppm/6H

Explanatory Notes

Odor threshold from CHEMINFO; Flash point = 28 deg C;

Adverse Effects
Lacrimator

Yes

Neurotoxin

CNS Solvent Syndrome

Hepatotoxin

Hepatotoxin, Secondary

Links to Other NLM Databases
Health Studies

Human Health Effects from Hazardous Substances Data Bank:

Toxicity Information

Search TOXNET

Chemical Information

Search ChemIDplus

Related Information in HazMap
Diseases

Occupational diseases associated with exposure to this agent:

Processes

Industrial Processes with risk of exposure: