Agent Name

Pyrethrum

CAS Number

8003-34-7

Major Category

Pesticides

Synonyms

Cinerin I or II; Jasmolin I or II; Pyrethrin I or II; Pyrethrum I or II; [NIOSH] Buhach; Chrysanthemum cinerareaefolium; Dalmatian insect powder; Dalmation insect flowers; Firmotox; Insect powder; Insecticides, pyrethrins; Persian insect powder; Prentox pyrethrum extract; Pyrenone; Pyrethres [ISO-French]; Pyrethrins; Pyrocide; Pyronyl; Trieste flowers; [ChemIDplus]

Category

Pyrethrins/Pyrethroids

Description

Brown, viscous oil or solid. [insecticide]; [NIOSH]

Sources/Uses

Pyrethrum is a variable mixture of Cinerin, Jasmolin, and Pyrethrin. [NIOSH] Used in shampoos to kill human lice and in household sprays to kill indoor pests; also used on some crops, in grain storage, in poultry confinement areas, and in dog pens; [EXTOXNET]

Comments

Pyrethrum is an extract of dried chrysanthemum flowers. The extract contains natural insecticides known as pyrethrins. Crude pyrethrum is a skin and respiratory allergen that has cross-reactivity with ragweed. The refined pyrethrins are less allergenic. Pyrethrins are poorly absorbed and rapidly degraded. Rare human cases of neurotoxicity have been reported. Pyrethroids, chemically similar to pyrethrins, are synthetic insecticides that are stable enough to use for field applications. [EPA Pesticides, p. 68-9] A hypersensitivity pneumonitis syndrome has been reported associated with exposure to pyrethrum; [Harber, p. 204] Large oral doses of pyrethrins cause liver damage in animals; [EXTOXNET] Danger of skin sensitization; [MAK]

Reference Link

EXTOXNET PIP - PYRETHRINS AND PYRETHROIDS

Exposure Assessment
Skin Designation (ACGIH)

Insufficient data

TLV (ACGIH)

5 mg/m3

PEL (OSHA)

5 mg/m3

IDLH (NIOSH)

5000 mg/m3

Excerpts from Documentation for IDLHs

Other animal data: It has been reported that rats experienced moderate lung congestion when exposed for 30 minutes to 6,000 mg/m3 pyrethrum in peanut oil [Carpenter et al. 1950]. Human data: It has been estimated that the fatal human dose might be between 1 and 2 g/kg [Gosselin et al. 1984; Lehman 1949]. [Note: An oral dose of 1 to 2 g/kg is equivalent to a 70kg worker being exposed to about 47,000 to 93,000 mg/m3 for 30 minutes, assuming a breathing rate of 50 liters per minute and 100% absorption.

Reference Link

ATSDR - Toxicological Profile: Pyrethrins and Pyrethroids

Adverse Effects
Skin Sensitizer

Yes

Asthma

Yes

Fibrogenic

Yes

Neurotoxin

Other CNS Neurotoxin

Hepatotoxin

Hepatotoxin, Secondary

ACGIH Carcinogen

Not Classifiable

Links to Other NLM Databases
Health Studies

Human Health Effects from Hazardous Substances Data Bank:

Toxicity Information

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Chemical Information

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Biomedical References

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Related Information in HazMap
Diseases

Occupational diseases associated with exposure to this agent:

Processes

Industrial Processes with risk of exposure: