Agent Name

Pyridine

CAS Number

110-86-1

Formula

C5-H5-N

Major Category

Nitrogen Compounds

Synonyms

Azabenzene; Azine; CP 32; Piridina [Italian]; Pirydyna [Polish]; Pyridin [German]; Pyridine; [ChemIDplus] UN1282

Category

Pyridines

Description

Colorless to yellow liquid with a nauseating, fish-like odor; [NIOSH]

Sources/Uses

Used as a solvent for paint and rubber; used as an intermediate for pharmaceuticals, dyes, pesticides, textile finishes, and other chemicals; also used as a flavoring agent; [ACGIH]

Comments

Liquid causes first degree burns on short exposure. [CHRIS] In rat studies, pyridine produces anesthesia after inhalation of high concentrations and liver injury after sub-chronic feeding. The liver and kidneys are target organs in animal results. Workers avoid exposure because of its foul odor. Workers exposed to 125 ppm complained of transient nausea, headache, low back and abdominal discomfort, and urinary frequency without evidence of liver or kidney injury. [ACGIH] Allergic contact dermatitis reported in a laboratory technician; [Kanerva, p. 1831] An irritant and potential CNS depressant; May have effects on the liver and kidneys; [ICSC]

Reference Link

ATSDR - ToxFAQs - Pyridine

Exposure Assessment
Skin Designation (ACGIH)

Insufficient data

TLV (ACGIH)

1 ppm

PEL (OSHA)

5 ppm

IDLH (NIOSH)

1000 ppm

Excerpts from Documentation for IDLHs

Human data: Nausea, headache, insomnia, nervousness, and low back or abdominal discomfort with urinary frequency have occurred in individuals exposed to concentrations averaging 125 ppm for 4 hours/day for 1 to 2 weeks [Patty 1963]. Chronic poisoning with mild symptoms of central nervous system injury occurred in workers at a plant where pyridine vapor concentrations ranged from 6 to 12 ppm [Tessinger 1948].

Vapor Pressure

20.8 mm Hg

Odor Threshold Low

0.23 ppm

Odor Threshold High

1.9 ppm

Lethal Concentration

LC50 (rat) = 28,500 mg/m3/1H

Explanatory Notes

Detection odor threshold from AIHA (mean = 0.66 ppm); Flash point = 20 deg C;

Half Life

Whole body: less than 24 hours; [TDR, p. 1062]

Reference Link

ICSC: Pyridine

Adverse Effects
Skin Sensitizer

Yes

Neurotoxin

Other CNS Neurotoxin

Hepatotoxin

Hepatotoxin, Secondary

Nephrotoxin

Yes

Dermatotoxin

Skin Burns

IARC Carcinogen

Not Classifiable

ACGIH Carcinogen

Confirmed Animal

Links to Other NLM Databases
Health Studies

Human Health Effects from Hazardous Substances Data Bank:

Toxicity Information

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Chemical Information

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Biomedical References

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Related Information in HazMap
Diseases

Occupational diseases associated with exposure to this agent:

Processes

Industrial Processes with risk of exposure:

Activities

Activities with risk of exposure: