Agent Name

Sulfuric acid

CAS Number

7664-93-9

Formula

H2-O4-S

Major Category

Toxic Gases & Vapors

Synonyms

Acide sulfurique [French]; Acido solforico [Italian]; Acido sulfurico [Spanish]; Acidum sulfuricum; BOV; Battery acid; Dihydrogen sulfate; Dipping acid; Electrolyte acid; Hydrogen sulfate; Mattling acid; Oil of vitreol; Oil of vitriol; Schwefelsaeure; Schwefelsaeureloesungen [German]; Sulfuric acid; Sulphuric acid; Vitriol Brown Oil; Zwavelzuuroplossingen [Dutch]; [ChemIDplus] UN1830; UN1832; UN2796

Category

Acids, Inorganic

Description

Colorless to dark-brown, oily, odorless liquid. [Note: Pure compound is a solid below 51 degrees F. Often used in an aqueous solution.]; [NIOSH]

Sources/Uses

Used in the fertilizer, petroleum refining, and battery industries; also used in metal cleaning and electroplating; [ACGIH] Used in printing, publishing, and photography shops; [ATSDR ToxFAQs] Used as a wet etchant in semiconductor manufacturing at a standard concentration of 96%; [CSH, p. 46]

Comments

77%-98% acid causes second or third degree burns after short contact; [CHRIS] Solutions <30% are corrosive; solutions >30% are highly corrosive; [Quick CPC] "Human carcinogen" designation refers to sulfuric acid contained in strong inorganic acid mists. A corrosive substance that can cause pulmonary edema; [ICSC] May cause erosion of teeth enamel; [HSDB] See "Strong inorganic acid mists."

Exposure Assessment
Skin Designation (ACGIH)

Insufficient data

TIH

Yes

TLV (ACGIH)

0.2 mg/m3, thoracic fraction

MAK

0.1 mg/m3

Excerpts from Documentation for IDLHs

In exposures of 5 to 15 minutes, some volunteers found 5 mg/m3 to be very objectionable, while others found it less so [Amdur et al. 1952b].

Vapor Pressure

5.93E-5 mm Hg

Odor Threshold Low

0.15 mg/m3

Lethal Concentration

LC50 (rat) = 510 mg/m3/2h

Explanatory Notes

Odor threshold from AIHA; The Guide from the Emergency Response Guidebook is for "Sulfuric acid, fuming."

Reference Link

ATSDR - ToxFAQs - Sulfur Trioxide and Sulfuric Acid

Adverse Effects
Toxic Pneumonitis

Yes

Dermatotoxin

Skin Burns

IARC Carcinogen

Known Carcinogen

NTP Carcinogen

Human Carcinogen

ACGIH Carcinogen

Suspected Human

Links to Other NLM Databases
Health Studies

Human Health Effects from Hazardous Substances Data Bank:

Toxicity Information

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Chemical Information

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Biomedical References

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Related Information in HazMap
Diseases

Occupational diseases associated with exposure to this agent:

Processes

Industrial Processes with risk of exposure:

Activities

Activities with risk of exposure: