Agent Name

Turpentine

CAS Number

8006-64-2

Major Category

Solvents

Synonyms

Gum spirits of turpentine; Gum turpentine; Oil of turpentine; Oil of turpentine, distillation residue; Oil of turpentine, rectified; Spirit of turpentine; Spirits of turpentine; Sulfate turpentine; Terebenthine [French]; Terpentin oel [German]; Turpentine; Turpentine oil; Turpentine oil, rectified; Turpentine oil, rectifier; Turpentine spirits; Turpentine steam distilled; Turpentine, steam-distilled (Pinus spp.); Wood turpentine; [ChemIDplus] UN1299; UN1300

Category

Other Solvents

Description

Colorless liquid with a characteristic odor; [NIOSH] A mixture of terpenes (58-65%) that varies depending on the tree of origin; [ACGIH]

Sources/Uses

Used as a solvent for surface coatings, liniments, and perfumes; Used as an intermediate for camphor and menthol; Used less as a paint thinner since the 1940s; Used as a veterinary medication (expectorant, rubifacient, and antiseptic); [ACGIH]

Comments

In animal inhalation studies, intoxication is marked by ataxia, tremor, convulsions, and death. After exposures of 750 to 1000 ppm, human subjects complained of eye irritation, headache, dizziness, and nausea. Causes both irritant and allergic contact dermatitis; Oral lethal dose = 15-90 ml; Can cause chemical pneumonitis if aspirated; Liver enzymes are elevated in animals inhaling 300 ppm 6 hours/day, 5 days/week for 4-8 weeks. [ACGIH] Turpentine is a common skin sensitizer in painters. [Marks, p. 273] The allergens in turpentine are hydroperoxides of delta-3-carene with higher concentrations in Indonesian than in Portuguese turpentine. [Kanerva, p. 1766] Acute tubular necrosis has been reported after heavy and repeated skin exposures to gasoline, turpentine, petroleum naphtha, and diesel oil. [Rosenstock, p. 577] A skin, eye, and respiratory tract irritant; Inhalation of high concentrations can cause CNS depression and cardiac arrhythmias; A skin sensitizer; May cause effects on the bladder and kidneys; [ICSC] See "TERPENES."

Reference Link

Transient re-emergence of oil of turpentine allergy in the pottery industry

Exposure Assessment
Skin Designation (ACGIH)

No

TLV (ACGIH)

20 ppm

PEL (OSHA)

100 ppm

MAK

5 ppm

IDLH (NIOSH)

800 ppm

Excerpts from Documentation for IDLHs

Human data: Exposure of volunteers for several hours at 750 to 1,000 ppm resulted in irritation of the eyes, headache, dizziness, nausea, and acceleration of the pulse [Lehmann and Flury 1943]. The lethal concentration has been reported to be 1,878 ppm [Albaugh 1915].

Vapor Pressure

4 mm Hg

Odor Threshold Low

100 ppm

Odor Threshold High

200 ppm

RD50

1173 ppm

Lethal Concentration

LC50 (rat) = 12,000 mg/m3/6H

Explanatory Notes

Odor threshold from CHEMINFO; Flash point = 35 deg C;

Flammability (NFPA)

3: May ignite at ambient temperature

Adverse Effects
Skin Sensitizer

Yes

Neurotoxin

CNS Solvent Syndrome

Hepatotoxin

Hepatotoxin, Secondary

Nephrotoxin

Yes

ACGIH Carcinogen

Not Classifiable

Links to Other NLM Databases
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