Agent Name

Ochratoxin A

CAS Number

303-47-9

Formula

C20-H18-Cl-N-O6

Major Category

Biological Agents

Synonyms

(-)-N-((5-Chloro-8-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-oxo-7-isochromanyl)carbonyl)-3-phenylalanine; (R)-N-((5-Chloro-3,4-dihydro-8-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-oxo-1 H-2-benzopyran-7-yl)carbonyl)phenylalanine; Alanine, N-((5-chloro-8-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-oxo-7-isochromanyl)carbonyl)-3-phenyl-, (-)-; Antibiotic 9663; L-Phenylalanine, N-((5-chloro-3,4-dihydro-8-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-oxo-1H-2-benzopyran-7-yl)carbonyl)-, (R)-; N-(((3R)-5-Chloro-8-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-oxo-7-isochromanyl)carbonyl)-3-phenyl-L-alanine; Phenylalanine - ochratoxin A; [ChemIDplus] UN3462

Category

Mycotoxins

Description

Solid with a green fluorescence; [Merck Index] Faintly yellow powder; [MSDSonline]

Sources/Uses

Used as a research chemical; [HSDB] A toxic metabolite of Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus sulphureus, Aspergillus melleus, and Penicillium viridicatum molds. Ochratoxins have been found as natural contaminants on corn, peanuts, storage grains, cottonseed, and other decaying vegetables; [Merck Index] Human exposure occurs primarily by ingestion of contaminated grain and pork products; [IARC] Produced by Penicillium verrucosum, a common contaminant of barley; [Reference #2]

Comments

May be fatal by ingestion or inhalation; [CAMEO] May cause irritation; Causes injury to the kidneys and liver in high-dose animal studies; [MSDSonline] Causes renal tubular injury and liver damage in high-dose animal studies; Oral LD50 = 0.2 mg/kg for dogs and 59 mg/kg for mice; High levels in the diet are associated with nephropathy in humans and swine in Balkan countries (Balkan nephropathy); [Hayes, p. 644] Factory workers handling contaminated coffee, cocoa beans, spices, and other foods have elevated ochratoxin serum levels; [Reference #1] MAC-2 (considered to be carcinogenic for man because sufficient data from long-term animal studies or limited evidence from animal studies substantiated by evidence from epidemiological studies indicate that it can make a significant contribution to cancer risk); [MAK]

Reference Link

External and internal dose in subjects occupational...[Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2002] - PubMed Result

Exposure Assessment
Vapor Pressure

3.31E-16 mm Hg

Explanatory Notes

The Guide in the Emergency Response Guidebook is for "Toxins, extracted from living sources, solid, n.o.s."

Reference Link

PubMed Fulltext: Mycotoxins

Adverse Effects
Hepatotoxin

Hepatotoxin, Secondary

Nephrotoxin

Yes

IARC Carcinogen

Possible Carcinogen

NTP Carcinogen

Anticipated Human Carcinogen

Links to Other NLM Databases
Health Studies

Human Health Effects from Hazardous Substances Data Bank:

Toxicity Information

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Chemical Information

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Biomedical References

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Related Information in HazMap
Other Information

No other related information on this agent was found.