Agent Name

Tetrahydrofuran

CAS Number

109-99-9

Formula

C4-H8-O

Major Category

Solvents

Synonyms

1,4-Epoxybutane; Agrisynth THF; Butane, 1,4-epoxy-; Butane, alpha,delta-oxide; Butylene oxide; Cyclotetramethylene oxide; Diethylene oxide; Furan, tetrahydro-; Furanidine; Hydrofuran; Oxacyclopentane; Oxolane; THF; Tetrahydrofuraan [Dutch]; Tetrahydrofuran; Tetrahydrofuranne [French]; Tetraidrofurano [Italian]; Tetramethylene oxide; [ChemIDplus] UN2056

Category

Ethers (<C12)

Description

Colorless liquid with an ether-like odor; [NIOSH]

Sources/Uses

Used as a solvent for polymers and resins, a wetting agent for textiles, and a chemical intermediate; [ACGIH] Used as a solvent in inks, adhesives, and lacquers; [HSDB]

Comments

Anesthesia produced in animal inhalation studies; Toxic hepatitis has been reported in exposed workers. TLV Basis is irritation, CNS impairment, and kidney damage. [ACGIH] A skin, eye, and respiratory tract irritant; Inhalation of high concentrations can cause CNS depression; [ICSC]

Exposure Assessment
BEI

Tetrahydrofuran in urine = 2 mg/L; sample at end of shift;

Skin Designation (ACGIH)

Yes

TLV (ACGIH)

50 ppm

STEL (ACGIH)

100 ppm

PEL (OSHA)

200 ppm

MAK

50 ppm

IDLH (NIOSH)

2000 ppm

Excerpts from Documentation for IDLHs

Human data: It has been reported that exposure to 25,000 ppm will cause anesthesia and 17,000 ppm appears to be safe for 3 hours [Hofmann and Oettel 1954].

Vapor Pressure

162 mm Hg

Odor Threshold Low

0.09 ppm

Odor Threshold High

61 ppm

Lethal Concentration

LC50 (rat) = 21,000 ppm/3H

Explanatory Notes

IDLH = 10% LEL; Detection odor threshold from AIHA (mean = 31 ppm); Flash point = -14 deg C;

Flammability (NFPA)

3: May ignite at ambient temperature

Adverse Effects
Neurotoxin

CNS Solvent Syndrome

Hepatotoxin

Hepatotoxin, Primary

Nephrotoxin

Yes

ACGIH Carcinogen

Confirmed Animal

Links to Other NLM Databases
Health Studies

Human Health Effects from Hazardous Substances Data Bank:

Toxicity Information

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Chemical Information

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Biomedical References

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Related Information in HazMap
Diseases

Occupational diseases associated with exposure to this agent:

Processes

Industrial Processes with risk of exposure: