Agent Name

Thionyl chloride

CAS Number

7719-09-7

Formula

Cl2-O-S

Major Category

Toxic Gases & Vapors

Synonyms

Sulfinyl chloride; Sulfur chloride oxide (Cl2SO); Sulfur oxychloride; Sulfurous dichloride; Sulfurous oxychloride; Thionyl dichloride; [ChemIDplus] UN1836

Category

Acid Halides

Description

Colorless to yellow to reddish liquid with a pungent odor like sulfur dioxide. [Note: Fumes form when exposed to moist air.]; [NIOSH]

Sources/Uses

Used to make herbicides, surfactants, drugs, dyes, and plastics; Also used as an electrolyte in lithium batteries; [ACGIH]

Comments

Can cause pneumonitis; [ACGIH] Toxicity is comparable to hydrogen chloride; liquid may cause severe skin burns; [HSDB] Corrosive to skin; [Quick CPC] A lachrymator; [HSDB] A corrosive substance that can cause pulmonary edema; [ICSC] Sulfur chlorides release HCl, SO2, and H2S when spilled in water; [ERG 2012] Thionyl chloride is fibrogenic to the lungs in the context of an acute inhalation exposure complicated by bronchiolitis obliterans.

Reference Link

Thionyl-chloride-induced lung injury and bronchiolitis obliterans.

Exposure Assessment
Skin Designation (ACGIH)

Insufficient data

TIH

Yes

Dangerous When Wet

Yes - A material that, by contact with water, is liable to become spontaneously flammable or to give off flammable or toxic gas at a rate greater than 1 L per kilogram of the material, per hour; [ERG 2004]

Ceiling (ACGIH)

0.2 ppm

Vapor Pressure

100 mm Hg

Lethal Concentration

LC50 (rat) = 500 ppm/1h

Adverse Effects
Lacrimator

Yes

Toxic Pneumonitis

Yes

Fibrogenic

Yes

Dermatotoxin

Skin Burns

Links to Other NLM Databases
Health Studies

Human Health Effects from Hazardous Substances Data Bank:

Toxicity Information

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Chemical Information

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Related Information in HazMap
Diseases

Occupational diseases associated with exposure to this agent:

Processes

Industrial Processes with risk of exposure: