Disease/Syndrome

Chronic renal failure

Category

Chronic Poisoning

Acute/Chronic

Chronic

Synonyms

CRF; Chronic renal insufficiency; Chronic kidney disease, unspecified

Comments

Some of the common nonoccupational chronic renal diseases are diabetic renal disease, hypertensive renal disease, polycystic kidney disease, analgesic nephropathy, hemolytic uremic syndrome, and renal disease associated with infections and illicit drugs (HIV, hepatitis B and C). Acute renal failure (ARF) often occurs in the context of multiorgan failure. Community-acquired ARF is not very common, and it usually has a good prognosis. [Wallace, p. 1089-94] The chemical agents linked to work-related chronic renal disease are the three metals mercury, lead, and cadmium. [LaDou, Rosenstock, Sullivan, Levy] Mercury poisoning is one of the uncommon causes of nephrotic syndrome. [Goldfrank, p. 388] "The two forms of renal disease resulting from mercury exposure are acute tubular necrosis and nephrotic syndrome." [LaDou, p. 422] Heavy, prolonged occupational exposures to lead and cadmium can cause chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy. Such exposures occurred in the past when workers produced lead and cadmium products and there were no occupational exposure limits. "Historic cohort mortality studies of cadmium-exposed working populations have yielded mixed results in studying end-stage renal disease as a cause of death." [Rosenstock, p. 579] "Evidence from chronic lead nephropathy is not consistent. In some reports, workers with previous heavy and long-term lead exposure display little, if any, evidence of adverse renal effects." [APHA, p. 437] "Increased activities of U-NAG [a biomarker of kidney injury] during ongoing exposure to mercury vapor appear to be reversible upon cessation of exposure." [PMID 16804628]

Latency/Incubation

Years to decades;

Diagnostic

Serum creatinine may be within normal limits until almost 50% of nephron function is lost. [APHA, p. 435] Proteinuria > 150 mg/day; Albumin: marker of glomerular dysfunction; B-2-microglobulin: marker of tubular dysfunction; [Rosenstock, p. 567]

ICD-9 Code

585.9

Reference Link

Usefulness of biomarkers of exposure to inorganic ...[Ren Fail. 1999 May-Jul] - PubMed Result

Related Information in Haz-Map
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Job Tasks

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Agents

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