Agent Name

d-Limonene

CAS Number

5989-27-5

Formula

C10-H16

Major Category

Biological Agents

Synonyms

(+)-(4R)-Limonene; (+)-4-Isopropenyl-1-methylcyclohexene; (+)-Dipentene; (+)-Limonene; (+)-R-Limonene; (+)-alpha-Limonene; (+)-p-Mentha-1,8-diene; (4R)-(+)-Limonene; (4R)-Limonene; (R)-(+)-Limonene; (R)-(+)-p-Mentha-1,8-diene; (R)-1-Methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)cyclohexene; (R)-4-Isopropenyl-1-methyl-1-cyclohexene; (R)-Limonene; (R)-p-Mentha-1,8-diene; 1-Methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)cyclohexene, (R)-; Biogenic SE 374; Carvene; Citrene; D-(+)-Limonene; EC 7;Glidesafe; Glidsafe; Kautschiin; Limonene, (+)-; Refchole; d-(+)-Limonene; d-Limonene; d-Limonene (natural); d-Limoneno [Spanish]; d-p-Mentha-1,8-diene; p-Mentha-1,8-diene, (R)-(+)-; [ChemIDplus] UN1993; UN2319; UN2052

Category

Terpenes

Description

Liquid; [HSDB]

Sources/Uses

Used in flavorings, fragrances, and cosmetics and as a solvent and wetting agent; Also used to make resins, insecticides, insect repellants, and animal repellants; [HSDB]

Comments

d-Limonene is a liquid with a pleasant lemon-like odor. It is used as a solvent to replace chlorinated hydrocarbons and other more volatile and toxic organic solvents. It readily oxidizes when in contact with air. The oxidized form of d-limonene is a known skin sensitizer. [HSDB] A skin and eye irritant that may cause skin sensitization; [ICSC] The racemic mixture of d-limonene and l-limonene is called limonene or dipentene (138-86-3). [Kanerva, p. 1789] Estimated lethal dose orally for humans is 0.5 to 5 g/kg; Healthy men had diarrhea after an oral dose of 20 grams; Liver effects were noted in a chronic high-dose feeding study of mice; [AIHA] See "Limonene" and "l-Limonene."

Reference Link

Contact allergy to oxidized d-limonene among dermatitis patients

Exposure Assessment
MAK

5 ppm

Vapor Pressure

1.98 mm Hg

Explanatory Notes

Flash point = 48 deg C;

Half Life

75-95% excreted within 2-3 days; [AIHA]

Reference Link

ICSC: d-Limonene

Adverse Effects
Skin Sensitizer

Yes

Neurotoxin

CNS Solvent Syndrome

Hepatotoxin

Hepatotoxin, Secondary

IARC Carcinogen

Not Classifiable

Links to Other NLM Databases
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