Agent Name

Jet fuel

Major Category

Solvents

Synonyms

JP-4 (MIL-T-5624-L-Amd.1; wide cut) or JP-7 ( MIL-T-38219A-Amd.2; kerosene, low volatility); [ATSDR Case Studies # 32]

Category

Petroleum, Refined

Description

JP-4 is "composed mainly of alkanes in the C4 to C16 range. JP-7 is produced by blending kerosenes;" [ATSDR Case Studies]

Sources/Uses

About 85% of the aviation fuel used by the military is JP-4. JP-4 contains about 22% n-hexane and less than 0.5% benzene. [ATSDR Case Studies # 32] "Jet propulsion fuel 8 (JP-8), a volatile lipophilic kerosene-based fuel, is the main jet fuel used by the US Air Force (USAF). Because of its higher flash point and lower acute toxicity, JP-8 completely replaced JP-4 by 1995." [Reference #1]

Comments

Both JP-4 and JP-7 contain n-hexane, and peripheral neuropathy has been reported in chronically exposed workers. About one half of workers exposed to 500 ppm report symptoms of acute solvent intoxication, i.e., headache and giddiness. An evaluation of 12 workers with such symptoms after cleaning jet fuel cells failed to find any abnormalities of liver function tests. [ATSDR Case Studies # 32] Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons cause trivial hepatic injury in animal experiments. [Haddad, 226t] See "Kerosene."

Reference Link

Urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (OH-PAH) metabolite concentrations and the effect of GST polymorphisms among US Air Force personnel exposed to jet fuel.

Exposure Assessment
Skin Designation (ACGIH)

Yes

TLV (ACGIH)

200 mg/m3, total hydrocarbon vapor

Explanatory Notes

Regulated by OSHA as petroleum distillates; JP-4 has an odor threshold of about 1 ppm; [ATSDR Case Studies # 32] JP-3 and JP-4 are classified as NFPA flammability 3 while JP-1 and JP-5 are classified as NFPA flammability 2; [CAMEO]

Reference Link

ATSDR - ToxFAQs - Jet Fuels JP-4 and JP-7

Adverse Effects
Neurotoxin

CNS Solvent Syndrome

Hepatotoxin

Hepatotoxin, Secondary

Links to Other NLM Databases
Toxicity Information

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Related Information in HazMap
Diseases

Occupational diseases associated with exposure to this agent:

Processes

Industrial Processes with risk of exposure: