Process Name

Petroleum Production and Refining

Description

The potential for exposure to toxic chemicals exists during the exploration, production, and distribution phases of petroleum refining. |"Potential pulmonary toxicants|" include irritant gases, sulfur compounds, acids, carcinogens, particles, fibers, and sensitizers. |"Significant reductions in exposure have resulted in the past 30 years, with better control of fugitive emissions, minimization of benzene exposure, and automation of refinery operations.|" [Harber, p. 688-96] Refinery products include gasoline, other fuels, lubricants, waxes, asphalt, coke, and chemical intermediates. Crude oil and natural gas contain about 0.1% to 3% benzene. Refinery operations include distillation, cracking/conversion, treating, and blending. [PMID 20941467] Oil and natural gas reserves increased 63% and 17%, respectively, in the U.S. between 2009 to 2010 secondary |"to new accessibility to tight shale formations using horizontal drilling and high volume hydraulic fracturing.|" [PMID 24634090] |"Approximately 562,000 workers were employed in the U.S. oil and gas extraction industry in 2012; nearly half of those workers were employed by well servicing companies, which include companies that conduct hydraulic fracturing and flowback operations.|" [PMID 25175286] See |"Crude oil.|"^"Industry

Related Information in Haz-Map
Agents

Hazardous agents associated with this process: