Agent Name

Arsine

CAS Number

7784-42-1

Formula

As-H3

Major Category

Toxic Gases & Vapors

Synonyms

Arsenic hydride; Arsenic trihydride; Arseniuretted hydrogen; Arsenous hydride; Hydrogen arsenide; [NIOSH] UN2188

Category

Hydrides

Description

Colorless gas with a mild, garlic-like odor; Note: Shipped as a liquefied compressed gas; [NIOSH]

Sources/Uses

Arsine may be released in metal refining processes. It is used as a doping agent in microelectronics; also used in the manufacturing of organic chemicals and lead storage batteries. "Most cases of arsine poisoning do not result from the manufacture or use of the gas itself; rather, they come from the formation of arsine as a by-product of a chemical reaction involving, in most instances, a base metal, an arsenic impurity and an acid, or rarely, a strong alkali." [ACGIH]

Comments

Arsine damages the cell membrane of the red blood cell resulting in hemolysis. Since arsine is soluble, versus insoluble arsenic compounds, it is not as likely to be retained in the lung and increase the risk of lung cancer. [ACGIH] Acute arsine poisoning may induce acute tubular necrosis secondary to hemoglobinuria. [LaDou, p. 418] Two workers in a smelter suffered from arsine poisoning. The first patient had methemoglobinemia and hemoglobinuria at the time of hospital admission with complete resolution two weeks after exposure. [HSDB] Possible frostbite from contact with liquid; [NIOSH] See "Arsenic" and the linked occupational diseases.

Reference Link

ATSDR Medical Management - Arsine

Exposure Assessment
Skin Designation (ACGIH)

Insufficient data

TIH

Yes

TLV (ACGIH)

0.005 ppm

PEL (OSHA)

0.05 ppm

IDLH (NIOSH)

3 ppm

Excerpts from Documentation for IDLHs

It has been reported that poisoning symptoms occur after a few hours of exposure to 3 to 10 ppm [Henderson and Haggard 1943]. It has been suggested that 1 to 10 ppm might be dangerous for a 1 hour exposure [AIHA 1965] and that 6 to 30 ppm is the maximum concentration that can be inhaled in 1 hour without serious consequences [Henderson and Haggard 1943]. It has been estimated that 1,543 ppm for 2 minutes and 62 ppm for 30 minutes are minimal disabling exposures [Gates et al. 1946].

Odor Threshold Low

1 ppm

RD50

13 ppm

Lethal Concentration

LC50 (rat) = 390 mg/m3/10 min

Explanatory Notes

Odor threshold from AIHA: all referenced values < 1.0 ppm;

Reference Link

NIOSH Occupational Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards: Arsine

Adverse Effects
Anemia

Anemia, Hemolytic

Nephrotoxin

Yes

Methemoglobinemia

Methemoglobinemia, Secondary

Links to Other NLM Databases
Health Studies

Human Health Effects from Hazardous Substances Data Bank:

Toxicity Information

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Chemical Information

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Biomedical References

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Related Information in HazMap
Diseases

Occupational diseases associated with exposure to this agent:

Processes

Industrial Processes with risk of exposure: