Agent Name

Copper(I) oxide

Alternative Name

Cuprous oxide

CAS Number

1317-39-1

Formula

Cu2-O

Major Category

Metals

Synonyms

Brown copper oxide; C.I. 77402; CI 77402; CP Cuprous Oxide Pigment Grade; Caocobre; Cobre [Sandoz]; Copox; Copper Sandoz; Copper hemioxide; Copper nordox; Copper oxide (Cu2O); Copper oxide, red; Copper protoxide; Copper sardez; Copper suboxide; Copper(1+) oxide; Copper-sandoz; Cupper oxide [Russian]; Cupramar; Cuprocide; Cuprous Oxide Type Two; Cuprous Oxide, AA Grade; Cuprous oxide [ISO]; Dicopper monoxide; Dicopper oxide; Fungi-rhap Cu-75; Fungimar; Kupferoxydul [German]; Kuprite; Nordox; Oleo nordox; Oleocuivre; Oxyde cuivreux [French]; Oxyde cuivreux [ISO-French]; Perecot; Perenex; Perenox; Purple Copp 92; Purple Copp 97; Purple Copp 97N; Red Copp 92; Red Copp 97; Red Copp 97N; Red copper oxide; Yellow compound; Yellow cuprocide; [ChemIDplus] Kupfer-(I)-oxid; Dikupfermonoxid; [IUCLID] UN3077

Category

Metals, Inorganic Compounds

Description

Yellow, red, or brown solid; Practically insoluble in water; [Merck Index] Dark red powder; [Sigma-Aldrich MSDS]

Sources/Uses

Used mainly in marine paints to inhibit barnacles and algae; Also used as a seed and crop fungicide, a ceramic and glass pigment, a catalyst, a carbon monoxide absorbent, in brazing pastes, and in rectifiers; Occurs in nature as cuprite; [Ullmann] Also used in batteries, electroplating, and welding fluxes; [Hawley] Other uses include photoelectronics, hydrometallurgy , as an antiseptic for fishnets, antioxidant in lubricants, reducing agent in synthesis, and in the purification of helium; [EPA/OHMTADS]

Comments

An eye and respiratory tract irritant; Can cause metal fume fever after inhalation and injury to the liver and kidneys after ingestion; [ICSC] Copper-induced metal fume fever is not as common as zinc-induced because of the higher temperature required to produce copper oxide. (Zn mp = 419.5; Cu mp = 1083 deg C.) Acute copper poisoning after ingestion can cause liver injury, methemoglobinemia, and hemolytic anemia. Acute renal failure may result, secondary to massive hemoglobinuria. [Goldfrank, p. 1259] Slowly oxidized by moist air to cupric oxide; [Merck Index] An eye irritant; Toxic by ingestion; [Sigma-Aldrich MSDS] See "Copper."

Exposure Assessment
TLV (ACGIH)

1 mg/m3, as Cu

PEL (OSHA)

1 mg/m3, as Cu

MAK

0.01 mg/m3, respirable fraction (Cu, inorganic cmpnds)

IDLH (NIOSH)

100 mg/m3, as Cu

Lethal Concentration

LC50 (rat) = 50,000 mg/m3/4hr

Explanatory Notes

mp = 1,230 deg C; [Sigma-Aldrich MSDS] The Guide in the Emergency Response Guidebook is for "Environmentally hazardous substances, solid, n.o.s."

Adverse Effects
Anemia

Anemia, Hemolytic

Hepatotoxin

Hepatotoxin, Secondary

Nephrotoxin

Yes

Methemoglobinemia

Methemoglobinemia, Secondary

Links to Other NLM Databases
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Toxicity Information

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Chemical Information

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