Agent Name

Phosphorus (yellow)

CAS Number

12185-10-3

Formula

P4

Major Category

Other Classes

Synonyms

Molecular phosphorus; P4; Phosphorus molecule (P4); Phosphorus tetraatomic molecule; Phosphorus tetramer; Tetraatomic phosphorus; Tetrameric phosphorus; White phosphorus; Yellow phosphorus; [ChemIDplus] UN1381

Category

Phosphorus Compounds

Description

White to yellow, soft, waxy solid with acrid fumes in air. (Note: Usually shipped or stored in water.) [NIOSH] Red and black phosphorus are less toxic allotropes that do not spontaneously combust in air. [Merck Index]

Sources/Uses

Used by the military for ammunition and incendiary devices; used by industry to produce phosphoric acid, fertilizers, food additives, and cleaning compounds; In the past small amounts of phosphorus were used for pesticides and fireworks. [ATSDR ToxFAQs] Red phosphorus is used to produce methamphetamine (meth labs). It is also used in luminous coatings, pyrotechnics, and fertilizers; [AHLS, p. 397] Phosphorus (P2O5, PBr3, PCl3, POCl3, PH3, and PF5) is used as a doping agent in semiconductor manufacturing. [CSH, p. 50]

Comments

Liquid or solid causes second or third degree burns after short contact; [CHRIS] Phosphorus is a respiratory irritant. Medical and dental surveillance in recent decades of a plant producing phosphorus and manufacturing fertilizer did not reveal any health effects caused by chronic phosphorus exposure. No "phossy jaw" (necrosis of the mandible) was found. Heavy industrial phosphorus exposure resulting in phossy jaw in the past was accompanied by liver and kidney injury according to some reports. [ACGIH] Inhalation of vapor may cause pulmonary edema. [ICSC] White phosphorus causes severe chemical burns. Systemic toxicity may include hypocalemia. In warfare, white phosphorus often contaminates skin and wounds. Phosphorescent particles and fragments can be identified in a dark room, and they should be removed as soon as possible and placed under water. [AHLS, p. 393-406] "Red phosphorus is not absorbed and is essentially nontoxic." [Olson, p. 332] Red phosphorus has limited toxicity. White phosphorus combusts in air and causes liver and kidney injury after ingestion. [Goldfrank, p. 1440]

Exposure Assessment
Skin Designation (ACGIH)

Insufficient data

TLV (ACGIH)

0.1 mg/m3

PEL (OSHA)

0.1 mg/m3

MAK

0.01 mg/m3, inhalable fraction

IDLH (NIOSH)

5 mg/m3

Excerpts from Documentation for IDLHs

Human data: Death has reportedly resulted from a single dose of 1 mg/kg [Smyth 1956]. Severe toxic symptoms have been reported following a single oral dose of 15 mg [Sollmann 1943]. However, survival of ingestion up to 1.5 grams have also been reported [Diza-Rivera et al. 1950; Newburger et al. 1948]. [Note: An oral dose of 15 mg is equivalent to a 70kg worker being exposed to 10 mg/m3 for 30 minutes, assuming a breathing rate of 50 liters per minute and 100% absorption.]

Vapor Pressure

0.03 mm Hg

Explanatory Notes

The NFPA flammability code for "Phosphorus, amorphous" is 1 (must be preheated to burn) while the code for "Phosphorus, white, molten" is 4 (extremely flammable).

Reference Link

ATSDR - ToxFAQs - White Phosphorus

Flammability (NFPA)

4: Burns readily

Adverse Effects
Toxic Pneumonitis

Yes

Hepatotoxin

Hepatotoxin, Secondary

Nephrotoxin

Yes

Dermatotoxin

Skin Burns

Links to Other NLM Databases
Toxicity Information

Search TOXNET

Chemical Information

Search ChemIDplus

Related Information in HazMap
Processes

Industrial Processes with risk of exposure: