Agent Name

Amyl nitrite

CAS Number

110-46-3

Formula

C5-H11-N-O2

Major Category

Nitrogen Compounds

Synonyms

3-Methylbutanol nitrite; 3-Methylbutyl nitrite; Amilnitrite; Amyl nitrite (VAN); Aspiral; Isoamyl nitrite; Isopentyl nitrite; Nitramyl; Nitramyl (VAN); Nitrous acid, 3-methylbutyl ester; Nitrous acid, isopentyl ester; Pentanoli nitris; Vaporole; [ChemIDplus] UN1113

Category

Nitrates and Nitrites

Description

Yellowish transparent liquid with a penetrating, somewhat fruity odor; Unstable, decomposed by light and air; [Merck Index] Colorless liquid; [MSDSonline]

Sources/Uses

Used in perfumes and to make diazonium compounds; Also used as a drug (vasodilator for angina and antidote for hydrogen cyanide poisoning); [HSDB]

Comments

Flammable liquid that forms explosive mixture with air or oxygen; [Merck Index] May be absorbed through skin; Can induce methemoglobinemia; [ICSC] Inhalation of one crushable ampule produces vasodilation and a methemoglobin level of about 5%. IV administration of a single dose produces a methemoglobin level of about 20-30%. IV administration can cause hypotension and potentially fatal methemoglobinemia; [Olson, p. 523]

Exposure Assessment
Vapor Pressure

26.3 mm Hg

Lethal Concentration

LC50 (rat) = 716 ppm/4h

Flammability (NFPA)

3: May ignite at ambient temperature

Adverse Effects
Methemoglobinemia

Methemoglobinemia, Secondary

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