Agent Name

Chlorobenzene

Alternative Name

Monochlorobenzene

CAS Number

108-90-7

Formula

C6-H5-Cl

Major Category

Solvents

Synonyms

Benzene chloride; Benzene, chloro-; Chloorbenzeen [Dutch]; Chlorbenzene; Chlorbenzol; Chlorobenzen [Polish]; Chlorobenzene, mono-; Chlorobenzenu [Czech]; Chlorobenzol; Clorobenzene [Italian]; CP 27; I P Carrier T 40; MCB; Monochloorbenzeen [Dutch]; Monochlorbenzene; Monochlorbenzol [German]; Monochlorobenzene; Monoclorobenzene [Italian]; Phenyl chloride; Tetrosin SP; [ChemIDplus] UN1134

Category

Chlorinated Aromatics

Description

Colorless liquid with an almond-like odor; [NIOSH]

Sources/Uses

Used as a solvent for paints, adhesives, polishes, waxes, and natural rubber; used as a dry cleaning agent and an intermediate in the synthesis of organic chemicals; [NIOSH Guidelines for Chemical Hazards] Used as a heat transfer medium, fiber swelling agent and dye carrier in textile processing, tar and grease remover, solvent for bitumen and asphalt building coatings, and pesticide solvent; [HSDB] Used in leather tanning; [PMID 21938525]

Comments

Odor threshold = 0.21 ppm; repeated or prolonged skin contact can cause burns; [NIOSH Guidelines for Chemical Hazards] In animal studies, high doses are toxic to the liver. [ACGIH] If left on clothes, can cause reddening of skin; [CHRIS] A skin and eye irritant; Ingestion can cause aspiration into the lungs; Inhalation of high concentrations can cause CNS depression; May cause kidney and liver injury; [ICSC] A mild skin irritant; Harmful by inhalation; [Alfa Aesar MSDS]

Exposure Assessment
BEI

Total 4-chlorocatechol in urine = 100 mg/g creatinine at end of shift at end of workweek; Total p-chlorophenol in urine = 20 mg/g creatinine at end of shift at end of workweek;

Skin Designation (ACGIH)

Insufficient data

TLV (ACGIH)

10 ppm

PEL (OSHA)

75 ppm

MAK

10 ppm

IDLH (NIOSH)

1000 ppm

Excerpts from Documentation for IDLHs

Basis for original (SCP) IDLH: AIHA [1964] reported that 8,000 ppm was fatal to cats in 30 minutes [Patty 1963; Flury and Zernik 1931]. Patty [1963] reported that the exposure of cats for 1 hour to 2,400 to 2,900 ppm causes unsteadiness, tremor, and twitching [Flury and Zernik 1931]. Based on the data cited above, an IDLH of 2,400 ppm is chosen for this draft technical standard. . . . Basis for revised IDLH: The revised IDLH for chlorobenzene is 1,000 ppm based on acute inhalation toxicity data in animals [DeCeaurriz et al. 1981; Flury and Zernik 1931].

Vapor Pressure

12 mm Hg

Odor Threshold Low

0.08 ppm

Odor Threshold High

5.9 ppm

RD50

1054 ppm

Lethal Concentration

LC50 (rat) = 2,965 ppm

Explanatory Notes

Detection odor threshold from AIHA (mean = 1.3 ppm); Flash point = 29.2 deg C;

Half Life

Estimated from animal studies: 2 days; [TDR, p. 313]

Reference Link

ATSDR - ToxFAQs - Chlorobenzene

Flammability (NFPA)

3: May ignite at ambient temperature

Adverse Effects
Neurotoxin

CNS Solvent Syndrome

Hepatotoxin

Hepatotoxin, Secondary

Dermatotoxin

Skin Burns

ACGIH Carcinogen

Confirmed Animal

Links to Other NLM Databases
Health Studies

Human Health Effects from Hazardous Substances Data Bank:

Toxicity Information

Search TOXNET

Chemical Information

Search ChemIDplus

Biomedical References

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Related Information in HazMap
Diseases

Occupational diseases associated with exposure to this agent:

Processes

Industrial Processes with risk of exposure: