Agent Name

Latex rubber

Alternative Name

Natural rubber latex

CAS Number

9006-04-6

Major Category

Biological Agents

Synonyms

Natural rubber latex; 5L-TP0203; AMA 7; Alkenes, polymers, rubber; Be Be Tex 1223; CS 700; CSV 1; CV 50; CV 60; Caoutchouc; Cartex 600; DRC 60; Defo 1000; Defo 700; Dynatex GTZ; Dynatex LA; E 218 (rubber); Ebonite; Elastic materials, rubber; Elastomers; FB 3001; Flexigum 40; Fultite FB 010K; Fultite FB 3001; Fultite FB 520; GLN 200; GNL 150; Gum Nafkacrystal; Gum nafkacrystal; HC 106; Hartex 102HR; Hartex 103; Harub 5LV; Heveacrumb SMR 5L; Heveaplus; Hydrocarbons, polymers, rubber; IR 25; IR 68; ISNA 5; Impervia; India rubber; Iotex C 60; JLX 105; JLX 113; KDP 150; Kagetex FA 2005; LATZ latex; Latex gum; Latex particles; Lorival R 25; Lotol L 9241; Mar DR 1135; Mitsuwa RC paper Cement; Nafka; Nafka crystal gum; Nafka kristalgom; Natural latex; Natural rubber; Polyisoprene; Rubber; Thiokol NVT; [ChemIDplus]

Category

Plant-Derived Allergens

Description

Nearly colorless and transparent in thin layers; [HSDB]

Sources/Uses

Uses include pneumatic tires and inner tubes; tubing and hose; rubber footwear, inflatable and sectional seals; elastic thread and tape; rubber/metal bonded products; inflatable life-rafts and dinghies; chemically resistant tank linings; conveyor belting; foam cushioning for upholstery and bedding; floor coverings; proofed material for clothing; adhesives and solutions; washers, gaskets, diaphragms; floating bulk liquid containers and hose; tennis, squash and golf balls; [HSDB] Rubber products are roughly 40% natural and 60% synthetic. Natural rubber latex (NRL) is the main ingredient in rubber tires, latex condoms, and surgical gloves. Gloves and condoms are made directly from liquid NRL and are referred to as dipped products. The second category is dry molded products (medical tubing, baby bottle nipples, automobile tires, hoses, and belts). Dry molded products are treated with washing and drying processes that reduce the level of allergenic proteins. A 2001 study in Thailand found the highest airborne exposures to NRL in glove manufacturing factories, followed by rubber plantations, and lowest levels in hospitals. Other studies have shown a higher prevalence of latex allergy in healthcare workers compared to glove manufacturing workers because of the relative increased dermal exposure. [ACGIH]

Comments

Occupational asthma reported in medical workers and workers manufacturing latex gloves; [Malo] Patients allergic to latex usually have "itching or burning with or without localized contact urticaria when wearing rubber gloves." [Marks, p. 359] Allergic skin reactions to rubber gloves may be either latex sensitivity (contact urticaria) or allergic contact dermatitis from rubber chemicals. Contact urticaria develops within minutes of contact with the latex gloves while allergy to the rubber chemicals is a delayed response. [Marks, p. 293] Latex allergy can be prevented in healthcare workers by avoiding unnecessary glove use, by using non-powdered latex gloves in all workers, and by using non-latex gloves in sensitized workers. [Reference #2] Latex exposure can cause irritant contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis (type IV delayed hypersensitivity to latex additives), and IgE-mediated latex allergy (type I responses including contact urticaria, rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, and anaphylaxis). Latex sensitization of healthcare workers, as determined by skin-prick testing, is in the range of 5% to 12% compared to 1% in unexposed workers. [ACGIH] "These results reinforce the effectiveness of the recommendations to eliminate powdered latex gloves to minimize the risk of latex allergy in the health care workforce." [PMID 21775898] Type IV allergic contact dermatitis is usually mediated by thiurams. Other causative rubber additives are carbamates and mercaptobenzothiazoles. [PMID 22513655] See "Thiuram mix."

Reference Link

OSHA: Latex Allergy

Exposure Assessment
Skin Designation (ACGIH)

Yes

TLV (ACGIH)

0.0001 mg/m3, inhalable allergenic proteins

Reference Link

Latex allergy: a follow up study of 1040 healthcar...[Occup Environ Med. 2006] - PubMed Result

Adverse Effects
Skin Sensitizer

Yes

Asthma

Yes

Links to Other NLM Databases
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