Agent Name

Acetaldehyde

CAS Number

75-07-0

Formula

C2-H4-O

Major Category

Other Classes

Synonyms

Acetaldehyd [German]; Acetaldehyde; Acetaldehyde (natural); Acetic aldehyde; Acetic ethanol; Acetylaldehyde; Aldehyde acetique [French]; Aldeide acetica [Italian]; Ethanal; Ethyl aldehyde; Octowy aldehyd [Polish]; [ChemIDplus] UN 1089

Category

Aldehydes

Description

Colorless liquid or gas (above 69 degrees F) with a pungent, fruity odor; [NIOSH]

Sources/Uses

Used in synthesis of organic chemicals, resins, dyes, pesticides, disinfectants, cosmetics, gelatin, glue, lacquers, varnishes, casein products, explosives, and pharmaceuticals; also used as a hardener in photography, a flavoring agent, and a leather preservative; [NIOSH OSH Guideline] Also used in leather tanning, in glue products, and in the paper industry; A metabolite of ethanol after drinking alcohol; [ACGIH]

Comments

Repeated or prolonged skin contact can cause dermatitis or burns. [NIOSH Guidelines for Chemical Hazards] May cause pulmonary edema after acute, heavy inhalation exposure; [ICSC] Allergic contact dermatitis reported in a textile worker; [Kanerva, p. 1737] If left on clothes, can cause reddening of skin; [CHRIS] Acetaldehyde is a skin irritant. [Quick CPC] Causes eye irritation in volunteers at 25 ppm (lowest) to 50 ppm (majority). In animal studies, causes nasal and laryngeal carcinomas at >750 ppm in rats and at 1650 ppm in hamsters; Alcoholics have an order of magnitude higher average levels of DNA adducts of acetaldehyde in their white blood cells. [ACGIH]

Exposure Assessment
Skin Designation (ACGIH)

Insufficient data

Ceiling (ACGIH)

25 ppm

PEL (OSHA)

200 ppm

MAK

50 ppm

IDLH (NIOSH)

2000 ppm

Excerpts from Documentation for IDLHs

Basis for original (SCP) IDLH: The chosen IDLH is based on the statements by Patty [1963] and ACGIH [1971] that all rats survived a 4-hour exposure to 8,000 ppm, but all rats died from a 16,000 ppm exposure [Smyth 1956]. Human data: None relevant for use in determining the revised IDLH.

Vapor Pressure

755 mm Hg

Odor Threshold Low

0.0028 ppm

Odor Threshold High

1000 ppm

RD50

4946 ppm

Lethal Concentration

LC50 (rat) = 13,300 ppm/4H

Explanatory Notes

Detection odor threshold from AIHA (mean = 0.067 ppm); Odor threshold = 0.21 ppm; [ACGIH]

Half Life

No reports found; [TDR, p. 11]

Reference Link

ICSC: Acetaldehyde

Flammability (NFPA)

4: Burns readily

Adverse Effects
Skin Sensitizer

Yes

Toxic Pneumonitis

Yes

Dermatotoxin

Skin Burns

IARC Carcinogen

Possible Carcinogen

NTP Carcinogen

Anticipated Human Carcinogen

ACGIH Carcinogen

Suspected Human

Links to Other NLM Databases
Health Studies

Human Health Effects from Hazardous Substances Data Bank:

Toxicity Information

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Chemical Information

Search ChemIDplus

Biomedical References

Search PubMed

Related Information in HazMap
Diseases

Occupational diseases associated with exposure to this agent:

Processes

Industrial Processes with risk of exposure:

Activities

Activities with risk of exposure: