Agent Name

CHLORINATED NAPHTHALENES

Alternative Name

CLASS

Major Category

Other Classes

Synonyms

CLASSES; Halowaxes

Category

Halowaxes

Description

Liquids, waxes, or high melting-point solids;

Sources/Uses

Have been used in cable insulation, wood preservation, engine oil additives, electroplating masking compounds, capacitors, refractive index testing oils, and dye production; Waste incineration is a source of environmental contamination; [Reference #1] Have been used as impregnants for condensers and capacitors, dipping-encapsulating compounds in electronic and automotive applications, temporary binders in the manufacture of ceramic components, in paper coatings, in precision casting of alloys, and as additives in gear oils and cutting compounds; [HSDB] Also used as supports for storage batteries, in textile dyeing, an oil additive, and a DDT solvent; See "2-Chloronaphthalene," "Halowax 1000," and "1-Choronaphthalene."

Comments

There are 75 possible congeners; Chlorinated naphthalenes bioaccumulate in fish; Bioaccumulation increases with degree of chlorination; Highly chlorinated naphthalenes, e.g., octachloronaphthalene, do not bioaccumulate because of poor absorption; Monitoring of seabird eggs between 1974 and 1987 showed decreasing levels of chlorinated naphthalenes; Target organs are liver (hepatitis) and skin (chloracne); LD50 values range from 3-1540 mg/kg body weight with the higher chlorinated congeners being more toxic; Chloracne and severe liver disease were reported in workers handling these chemicals in the 1930s and 1940s; Dermal application of Halowax 1014, containing penta- and hexachloronaphthalenes, caused chloracne in humans, but congeners with less chlorine did not cause chloracne after dermal application; [Reference #1]

Restricted

Not manufactured in the US since 1977; No longer used in capacitors or electric cable coverings; Largely discontinued as lubricants; No longer used as wood preservatives in the US; [HSDB]

Reference Link

INCHEM: CHLORINATED NAPHTHALENES (CICAD 34 - 2001)

Exposure Assessment
Bioaccumulates

Yes

Half Life

1.5-2.4 years for hexa-isomers in human blood; [Reference #1]

Adverse Effects
Hepatotoxin

Hepatotoxin, Primary

Dermatotoxin

Chloracne

Links to Other NLM Databases
Toxicity Information

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Chemical Information

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Related Information in HazMap
Diseases

Occupational diseases associated with exposure to this agent:

Processes

Industrial Processes with risk of exposure: