Agent Name


CAS Number




Major Category

Biological Agents


(2,4-Dihydroxy-2H-pyran-3(6H)-ylidene)acetic acid, 3,4-lactone; (2,4-Dihydroxy-2H-pyran-3(6H)-ylidene)acetic acid-3,4-lactone; 2,4-Dihydroxy-2H-pyran-delta-3(6H),alpha-acetic acid-3,4-lactone; 2H-Pyran-delta(sup 3(6H),alpha)-acetic acid, 2,4-dihydroxy-, 3,4-lactone; 4-Hydroxy-4H-furo(3,2-c)pyran-2(6H)-one; 4-Hydroxy-4H-furo(3,2-c)pyran-2(6H)-one; 4,6-Dihydro-4-hydroxy-2H-furo(3,2-c)pyran-2-one; Acetic acid, (2,4-dihydroxy-2H-pyran-3(6H)-ylidene)-, 3,4-lactone; Clairformin; Clavacin; Clavatin; Claviform; Claviformin; Expansin; Expansine; Gigantin; Leucopin; Mycoin; Mycoin C; Mycoin C3; Mycoine C3; Mycosin; Patuline; Penatin; Penicidin; Tercinin; Terinin; [ChemIDplus] UN3462




Solid; [Merck Index] Colorless or white odorless solid; [HSDB] White crystalline solid; [Aldrich MSDS]


Mycotoxin metabolite of many molds that possesses antibacterial, antiviral, and antiprotozoal properties but is toxic to plants and animals; One of the most common sources of contamination is from the blue mold (Penicillium expansum) that causes soft rot of apples, cherries, and other fruit; Also found often in unfermented apple juice; [Reference #1] Antibiotic metabolites derived from various fungi in the Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Gymnoascus species; [Merck Index] Mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium species found in unfermented apple juice and grape juice and field crops; [ChemIDplus] Mycotoxin found on fruits, vegetables, grains, and other foods; Also produced by the fungi Byssochlamys nivea; Purified form included in analytical reagent kit used as a standard for mycotoxins; Formerly used as a topical antibiotic cream; [HSDB]


No direct or conclusive evidence for natural poisoning, although has been shown to be toxic at high concentrations in the laboratory; [Reference #1] Causes irritation when applied dermally to humans; Oral administration in humans causes stomach irritation, nausea, and vomiting; [HSDB] The major sources of dietary exposure are from apples and apple juice made from contaminated fruit; A provisional maximum tolerated daily intake (PMTDI) of 0.0004 mg/kg was set in 1995; [JECFA] Toxic to liver in oral lethal-dose studies of mice; [RTECS] An irritant; Fatal by ingestion; [Aldrich MSDS]

Reference Link

PubMed Fulltext: Mycotoxins

Exposure Assessment
Vapor Pressure

6.8E-6 mm Hg

Explanatory Notes

The Guide in the Emergency Response Guidebook is for $Toxins, extracted from living sources, solid, n.o.s.$

Adverse Effects

Hepatotoxin, Secondary

IARC Carcinogen

Not Classifiable

Links to Other NLM Databases
Health Studies

Human Health Effects from Hazardous Substances Data Bank:

Toxicity Information


Chemical Information

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Other Information

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