Agent Name

TEXTILE DYES

Alternative Name

CLASS

Major Category

Dyes

Synonyms

CLASSES; Auramine, technical grade; Benzyl violet 4B; CI Basic Red 9; 2,4-Diaminoanisole; 3,3'-Dimethylbenzidine; 2,6-Dimethylaniline; 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine; 4,4'-Diaminodiphenyl ether; Disperse Blue 1; HC Blue No. 1; 4,4'-Methylenedianiline; Magenta containing CI Basic Red 9; ortho-Aminoazotoluene; para-Aminoazobenzene; CI Acid Red 114; CI Direct Blue 15; Citrus red No. 2; para-Dimethylaminoazobenzene; Oil orange SS; Ponceau 3R; Ponceau MX; Trypan blue; para-Cresidine; 3,3'-Dimethoxybenzidine; 2-Methyl-1-nitroanthroquinone; 4,4'-Methylene bis(2-methylaniline; 2-Nitroanisole; 4,4'-Thiodianiline; Malachite green; Methylene blue; Basic blue 3; C.I. Acid Red 52; Tyrian purple; Indigo; Levafix brilliant yellow E36; Drimaren brilliant yellow K-3GL; Cibachrome brilliant scarlet 32; Drimaren brilliant blue K-BL; Lanosol yellow 4G; and FD&C blue dye #2; Disperse orange 3; Eosin; Disperse blue 35; Disperse Blue 124; Disperse Orange 3; Disperse Yellow 3; Disperse Red 1;

Category

Other Dyes

Sources/Uses

Over 50% of commercial dyes are azo dyes. Metalized azo dyes contain copper, chromium, or cobalt. Anthraquinone dyes are the second most important chemical class of dyes. All of the important natural red dyes are anthraquinones. Anthraquinone dyes have brightness and fastness, but they are relatively expensive. The diaryl and triaryl dyes include the subclasses of pyronine (xanthene), thiapyronine, acridine and phenazine dyes. The xanthenes include some of the most fluorescent dyes. Di- and triaryl dyes include Auramine, Malachite green, Methylene blue, Basic blue 3, and C.I. Acid Red 52. The phthaleins, e.g., Phenolphthalein and Phenol red, are usually classified as triarylmethane derivatives. Other chemical classes are Indigoid, Phthalocyanines, and Sulfur dyes. Indigoid dyes include Tyrian purple [19201-53-7] used by the Romans and Indigo [482-89-3] used to dye denim jeans. "Phthalocyanines are analogues of the natural pigments chlorophyll and heme." [Kirk-Othmer]

Comments

Documented causes of occupational asthma include: reactive dyes, Levafix brilliant yellow E36, Drimaren brilliant yellow K-3GL, Cibachrome brilliant scarlet 32, Drimaren brilliant blue K-BL, Lanosol yellow 4G, FD&C blue dye #2 (used in food industry), Cibachrome brilliant scarlet 32, and Synozol Red-K 3BS. [Malo] Dyes are the main skin sensitizers in the textile industry but an uncommon cause of occupational allergic contact dermatitis. Azo dyes (e.g., disperse yellow 3, disperse orange 3, and disperse red 1) may cross-react with p-phenylenediamine. [Marks, p. 347-8] Dyes that cause photoirritant contact dermatitis include eosin, methylene blue, and Disperse blue 35. [Marks, p. 203] Allergic contact dermatitis in textile workers occurs mainly at the dyeing and finishing stages. Disperse dye, including Disperse Blue 124, Disperse Orange 1, Disperse Yellow 9, and Disperse Red 1, are used to dye synthetic fabrics versus reactive dyes used to dye natural fabrics. Formaldehyde resins are the main skin sensitizers at the finishing stage of textile manufacturing. [Kanerva, p. 1711-5] Of 70 known dye allergens, 50% are disperse, 20% reactive, and 10% acid. Disperse dyes can sensitize both before and after application of dye to the fabric; reactive dye sensitize only before application, for example, in workers mixing dyes. [Kanerva, p. 622-3]Aromatic amine dyes listed by IARC as known human carcinogens causing bladder cancer from dyestuffs manufacturing are 4-Aminobiphenyl, Benzidine, and 2-Naphthylamine. Listed as probable human carcinogens causing bladder cancer from the manufacture and use of dyes are Benzidine-base dyes, 4-Chloro-ortho-toluidine, and ortho-Toluidine. There are also several chemicals listed as possible human carcinogens in the categories of AROMATIC AMINE DYES (Auramine, technical grade; Benzyl violet 4B; CI Basic Red 9; 2,4-Diaminoanisole; 3,3'-Dimethylbenzidine; 2,6-Dimethylaniline; 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine; 4,4'-Diaminodiphenyl ether; Disperse Blue 1; HC Blue No. 1; 4,4'-Methylenedianiline; Magenta containing CI Basic Red 9) AZO DYES (ortho-Aminoazotoluene, para-Aminoazobenzene, CI Acid Red 114, CI Direct Blue 15, Citrus red No. 2, para-Dimethylaminoazobenzene, Oil orange SS, Ponceau 3R, Ponceau MX, and Trypan blue), and INTERMEDIATES FOR MANUFACTURE OF DYES (para-Cresidine, 3,3'-Dimethoxybenzidine, 2-Methyl-1-nitroanthroquinone, 4,4'-Methylene bis(2-methylaniline, 2-Nitroanisole, and 4,4'-Thiodianiline). [Siemiatycki, p. 327-31]

Restricted

The industrial use of 2-naphthylamine and benzidine were banned in 1950 and 1962 after dyestuffs manufacturing workers were found to have a 10- to 50-fold increased risk of death from bladder cancer. [Schottenfeld, p. 1107]

Reference Link

Clinical and immunologic evaluations of reactive dye-exposed workers

Exposure Assessment
Reference Link

Respiratory allergy and specific immunoglobin E and immunoglobin G antibodies to reactive dyes used in the wool industry

Adverse Effects
Skin Sensitizer

Yes

Asthma

Yes

Dermatotoxin

Contact Dermatitis, Photoirritant

Links to Other NLM Databases
Toxicity Information

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Diseases

Occupational diseases associated with exposure to this agent:

Processes

Industrial Processes with risk of exposure: